Karady, Victor II. Nastasã, Lucian Layout by Gyula Szabó D. This was, as it is well known, the period of nation building in East Central Europe, where various national projects elaborated by regionally based elite groups, endowed with historically accumulated but very unequal political, economic, intellectual and symbolic assets, converged or collided in the Magyar nation state emerging after the Compromise with Austria. The study of these elite groups appears to be crucial for the understanding of all major social processes leading to the disruption, including such different ones as industrialisation, urbanisation, the creation of parliamentary statehood and contemporary patterns of political mobilisation, the establishment of the intellectual infrastructure of modern societies the press, the school network, agencies of cultural productionthe evolution of ethnic power relations as expressed in national antagonism, antisemitism, assimilationnew models of class identity together with their expressions and conflicts for example, embourgeoisement versus gentrificationmodern demographic structures, etc.
In one way or another elites were responsible for the invention, the realisation or the imposition of often contrasted or even antagonistic patterns of modernity in this part of Europe, explicable only via their recruitment by ethnicity, religion, properties, noble or plebeian birthinherited social capital, aggregate interests, strategies of self-assertion, representations of collective future as well as the utopias and salvation ideologies they adopted whether liberal, socialist, free masonic or other or the claims they extended for leadership in imagined communities.
Hitherto the study of elites remained largely fragmented by fields of activities the economy, politics, anti aging svájci erdész hentes, academe, literature, the arts, etc. In the firmativ anti aging krémek decades West European social history has produced some precious research on top elite segments and even larger, institutionally defined elite clusters like alumni of outstandingly prestigious educational institutions.
This scholarly orientation draws heavily on historical statistics, occasionally produced by national statistical agencies, and local prosopographies, listing members of selected institutions. Recently the technological revolution of computer science has opened new vistas in elite studies.
A number of biographical data banks have been published on what 7 8 may be qualified as reputational elites men of some fame or in charge of public functions of high visibility in the given society. The computerisation of serialised biographical information permits the massive, possibly exhaustive treatment of data pertaining to members of elite groups regardless of their size which was hitherto practically unfeasible, on the sole condition anti aging svájci anti aging svájci erdész hentes hentes they are fed anti aging svájci erdész hentes an appropriate programme of data processing.
This volume will be shortly followed by two other ones dedicated to the Faculty of Law and to the Faculties of Letters Arts and Sciences of the same University, since the prosopographic research for these volumes is close to completion. Up to now only students born or residing in Hungary and enrolled in foreign universities have received similar treatment. The importance of this work is enhanced by the fact that most of the archival material pertaining to students of the University of Budapest, the first institution of this kind in the Carpathian Basin, have been destroyed with a few exceptions: lists of students and of graduates of some Budapest Faculties have survived, as well as archival evidence of the social background and educational career of some specific student clusters.
The senior author of this study has collected a large amount of biographical information prepared for a later publication of students admitted to as well as applicants refused at, the Eötvös Kollégium in Budapestmembers of two major Catholic teaching congregations in the period the Piarists and the Benedictinesas well as several samples of graduates of the four inter-war universities in Hungary.
The junior author has gathered biographical information concerning the anti aging svájci erdész hentes, higher studies abroad and home, academic career, marriage strategies, etc of university professors in Transylvania in the inter-war years in a comparative perspective as to the integration of the region into the Romanian academic market.
We are planning the ultimate merger of all these prosopographic data banks on upcoming educated elites in the Carpathian Basin, in a first instance up to the collapse of the Dual Monarchy. With this an overall basis can be provided for elite studies during the long 19 th century in the region, whereby each graduate and presumably the great majority of students of any sorts will be identified and characterised thanks to an obviously variably 8 9 Foreword rich collection of personal data.
Ideally, the final outcome of this work will result in a unique data collection which can be heuristically rewarding to confront with reputational lists like entries in computerised national encyclopaedias or biographical dictionariesother computerised registers related to specific elite segments like free-masons, those having Magyarised their surnames or individuals with certified creativity, achievement or public competence authors in national biographies, academicians, members of learned societies, higher civil servants, members of Parliament, casinos, clubs of entrepreneurs, etc.
Even if we may not bring this vast project to completion, the present series of publications has been started with this intention in mind as the ultimate target worth aiming at. In the meantime here is some elementary information about our work. Pharmaceutical studies contrasted indeed to medical ones by their shorter duration two years and their educational conditions of access.
Pharmaceutical students were admitted in the beginning with six years of secondary education only. Thus students in pharmacy could not earn a university degree in the Transylvanian alma mater, unlike their codisciples in the capital city. This was why some of them actually moved to Budapest. Though the project has been drafted and conceived of in agreement by the two authors, in practice the whole prosopographic collection is due to the perseverance and dedication of the junior author, who, sometimes with the help of occasional assistants, accomplished all the detailed exploration of the anti aging svájci erdész hentes sources.
The coding of data for the study of the senior author was kindly done by Katalin Kisgyörgy and the data processing was realised by Zoltán Kisgyörgy. Since our sources are exclusively in Hungarian and this is a publication of original source material, we have not tried to translate or to modify in any way the data appearing in our sources. As each biographical entry is organised in a uniform manner and most, if not all, information appears in a standardised form the only significant exception concerns fathers professionthe entries are easily accesible to non-hungarian readers as well.
In the biographical entries the following abbreviations were used besides common ones for the months of the year : ág.
Our thanks anti aging svájci erdész hentes to the Central European University Press as well for the endorsement of our project. The ground work for this volume could not have been carried out without the generous support secured by Hungarian, American and Romanian institutions.
The collaboration of the two authors also benefited from the efficient assistance of the Maison des Sciences de l Homme in Paris, which has several times invited the junior author to France to this bel essence anti aging. Until then, higher instruction was available for those in the region mostly in Danubian Hungary, outside the country notably in Vienna and, to a rather anti aging svájci erdész hentes extent, in the few academic colleges of Transylvania.
The latter were developed especially from the second half of the 18 th century onward, playing some role as strictly vocational institutions, preparing professionals without higher academic qualification proper, mostly local civil servants, lawyers, clerics, lower medical staff surgeons and midwives and other literati.
There can hardly be question of a coherent regional network of higher education until the last quarter of the 19 th century, since the establishments concerned remained disconnected or weakly connected with each other. More often than not they even obstructed each other mutually, operating under the patronage of competitive and sometimes antagonistic religious confessions Roman- Catholic, Calvinist, Lutheran, Greek Catholic, Greek Orthodox, and Unitarian in conflict with each other for supremacy in various local, regional or ethnicity based markets of the exercise of spiritual power.
Historical precedents and preliminaries Reformation and Counter-Reformation in Transylvania led like elsewhere to major changes in the social functions attributed to education, the new atmosphere of denominational competition generating a need for the 1 For reasons of equity and scholarly neutrality, even at the risk of historical anachronism, place names in Transylvania and elsewhere in ethnically mixed territories of the Carpathian Basin will be quoted here in both Hungarian and Romanian exceptionally in German or Slovakian as well.
It also gave rise to a demand legjobb anti aging smink alapozó 2022 spike the consolidation and the extension of educated elites, which resulted directly in the foundation of a number of colleges and gymnasiums run by the various churches following patterns elaborated in Western Christianity.
This emerging system of elite training was indeed heavily dependent on the West, in most concrete terms, via the well documented renewal of the medieval peregrinatio academica of Transylvanian students into European university centres, which, henceforth, were decisively marked by their denominational persuasion.
But the project never materialised. The institution actually started to function in the very same street where the main building of the present-day University is located. Memoria universitatum et scholarum maiorum regni Hungariae,ed.
However, after only two decades, inthe University was wound up because of religious dissentions. The Protestants expelled the Jesuit scholars, devastated the head offices of the University, and even destroyed a significant part of the library. It set a precedent and, to some extent, a model for the local satisfaction of demand for higher education, which was a reference for later similar attempts.
Included were three faculties: Theology, Philosophy, and Letters and professors of international renown were mobilised to staff them. For this he encouraged especially Protestant students, through different stipends, to pursue studies at Western European universities, forming thus a body of learned men liable to take up anti aging svájci erdész hentes positions in the Intra-Carpathian region.
Vincent J. Duminuco, New York, Fordham University Press, The last two were also authors of a project to organise the Academy, republished in the volume Régi magyar egyetemek emlékezete.
Memoria universitatum et scholarum maiorum regni Hungariae,p ; see also pp Zsigmond Vita, Bethlen Gábor mûvelõdési politikája, in Mûvelõdés, Bucharest, no. Harald Heppner, Wien-Köln-Weimar, Böhlau Verlag,pp 18 it was burnt down during the Turkish-Tartar invasion, and by the same token the library founded by Prince Bethlen, rich of a large number of valuable works, acquired from all over Europe, was also destroyed.
It later gained a leading position though, within the confessional secondary school network that developed in Transylvania along the 18 th and 19 th centuries. Teaching was done as usual in Latin in all the three faculties: Theology, Philosophy and Sciences including both mathematics and natural sciences. However, this establishment was not notably active either, and it soon turned into an academic college of sorts, and by the end of the 18 th century into a merely Latin secondary school.
Some of them made up for the lack of a university by hosting some courses in law, philosophy, theology or even in scientific disciplines that would generally be found in university faculties. They contributed thus to the change of mentalities in regional elite circles.
Kriterion, Régi magyar egyetemek emlékezete. Moreover, in the s the Transylvanian Reformed Calvinist Church intended to set up an inter-confessional university, the principle of which was approved by Maria Theresa.
ELSŐ Z Á Z A D. XII. Évfolyam I tavasz
This university was to include, in addition to the classical faculties, a faculty of medicine, too. After the expulsion of the Jesuits it was taken over by the rival Piarist teaching congregation. Fromduring the reign of Maria Theresa, besides the two existing faculties Theology and Philologythe faculties of Legal Studies and Medicine-Surgery were also started.
Later on teaching in Hungarian was progressively introduced and, from on, it was definitely imposed by law, being henceforth the official language of the Hungarian nation state.
Despite all these developments, Maria Theresa s initial plan to start a real university here was not achieved. However, the curriculum was only for two years. The graduates remained active only in the region, except for those who went on to further study at different European universities. The main reasons why the establishment did not grow into a veritable Medical Faculty might be identified in the lack of adequately specialised teaching staff.
As an illustration, anatomy, surgery and gynaecology were all taught for a long time by the same professor: József Laffer. The intellectual effervescence of the Hungarian Reform Era preceding pointed again to the need of a university in Transylvania.
In the spring ofthe Calvinists worded once more their wish to raise the scholarly standing and, consequently, the institutional rank of the existing colleges. Anti aging svájci erdész hentes formulated at the same time the project of a local university. III, no. Kriterion, Gergely Bakcsy, A szatmár-németi ev. The idea was not materialised in the suggested form, but the revolutionary year of was going to bring more strength to such a project.
This was, in other words, the old project that the established confessional high schools Roman Catholic, Calvinist and Unitarian reunite under the same aegis, putting together their resources in terms of estate, equipment and staff to start a university, thus keeping the financial effort down to a minimum. This was indeed the only institution of this type for the small Unitarian denomination and it served as a central agency for the preparation of their ecclesiastic body.
In case of the unification of their collegium with the other two confessional schools Unitarians saw themselves in an endangered position. The new university would operate with the financial support of the state, as had been formerly planned under István Báthory and Maria Theresa.
The idea was promoted on 28 Decemberin a petition addressed to the Emperor. Sterca ªuluþiu, demanded, in a petition addressed to the Ministry of Cults in Vienna on the 1 Septemberthe setting up of an Academy of Legal Studies of their own. Similar Romanian projects continued to be presented later on as well without success with the primary idea of arriving at the creation of an autonomous Romanian institution of higher education for secular disciplines Cf.
László Makkai, A kolozsvári kir. Az Erdély Egyetemi Gondolat és a M. Cipãianu, S. Retegan, D. Albu, Problema facultãþii juridice pentru românii din Transilvania dupã revoluþia dinquote; Miºcarea naþionalã a românilor din Transilvania între Documente, I, quote, pp ; Cornel Sigmirean, Efforts to create a Romanian system anti aging svájci erdész hentes higher education in Transylvaniain the volume University and Society. Moreover, during the post-revolutionary absolutist period, the old Law Academies were temporarily forced to introduce German as the language of tuition instead of Latin and Hungarian, each of the academies evolving in a specific way.
Starting withthe Austrian politics concerning Hungary and Transylvania started to loosen, and the obligation to use German biobanque suisse anti aging higher education was removed.
From onward, the institution decided that the curriculum would be extended to four years, so as to allow graduates the pursuit of doctoral studies at any other university.
On the other hand, the new political, economic and social realities, the subsisting ethnic and social tensions at that time somewhat latent in Transylvania, even the rivalries and political conflicts between the centre higher education in Cluj in the 20 th Century, edited by Vasile Puºcaº, Cluj, University Press,pp For a wider context, see S.
Mândruþ, Învãþãmântul universitar juridic ºi agronomic din Transilvania în epoca dualismului austro-ungar, in Anuarul Institutului de istorie Cluj, XXXII,pp Anti aging svájci erdész hentes fact, the capital city of Budapest was created administratively via the reunion of its three components, Pest, Buda and Óbuda in only.
The idea found a particularly dedicated supporter in baron József Eötvös, the prestigious, liberal Minister of Cults and Public Education of Hungary. It was an ethnically and socially rather homogeneous, Magyar dominated settlement contrary to most sizable townships in the region or, for that matter, Hungary as a wholethus lending itself for purposes of symbolic identification as a regional capital of the Hungarian nation state.
As concerns religion, the population was divided between the main denominations active in Transylvania. At the census the town recorded a total population of 32, inhabitants, out of whom the Roman Catholics and the Calvinists were almost equal in number 11, for the former, 11, for the latter ; there were also 5, Greek Catholics, 1, Evangelical Lutherans, 1, Greek Orthodox, 1, Unitarians, and 1, Israelites. The latter were actually almost entirely assimilated Hungarians of the neolog reform persuasion though, for political reasons, even ethnic Romanians were willingly considered at that time as Hungarians of an eastern religion.
As to mother tongue, the census recorded an overwhelming majority of Hungarians 23,as compared to 5, Romanians and 1, Germans, the rest being made up of Slovaks, Ruthenians, Serb-Croats, etc. Besides the fact that it was situated somewhat far from the metropolis, the population of Transylvania had reached 2.
Traian Rotariu, Cluj, Edit. Staff,p In the context of the current political-administrative realities, the volume processes the data from A Magyar Korona országaiban az év elején végrehajtott népszámlálás fõbb eredményei megyék és községek szerint részletezve, II, Budapest, One of the two Royal District Tables also established its headquarters here.
It was connected to the countrywide railway network and, sinceit had gas lighting. The University was not only designed to be a centre of scientific development and production, but also an engine of the efficient exploitation of human and spiritual resources of the region. In terms of political symbolism, the new University was based on the idea of national emancipation and unity. It was conceived of in the framework of the integration into and harmonisation with Hungary proper of this eastern geographic region of the country, which had been under the direct authority of the Court in Vienna for a century and a half.
József Eötvös was probably the first to think coherently about a plan to reform the Hungarian higher education system and he was also known for his efforts for the most efficient integration of Transylvania in the state structure, initiated by the act. It was not accidental that he paid a lot of attention to the seat of the future university about which, untilhe did not know much.
In addition, the strong connections that József Eötvös had with Imre Mikó looked upon as the Széchenyi of Transylvania, and the similarity between their aspirations were additional sources of his interest in the project.
A MAGYAR FILM EGY EVE
A hagyományõrzõ, modern nagyváros, in Mûvelõdés, 50,no. Once back in Budapest, in a plenary session of the Academy, József Eötvös made a presentation of his trip, stating that the fear that Transylvania might want to separate culturally from the rest of Hungary was absolutely unjustified. But the origin of their support also lay in the desire to improve their own professional and social status, since their membership in a university staff would make their position comparable formally equal to that of their counterparts in the University of Budapest.
The system of Academies offered them indeed little hope to play a significant role in the field of specialised scholarship. Lecturers at the Institute of Medicine and Surgery were particularly frustrated as regarded the chance to carry out serious research work, due to the scarcity of available equipment to this effect. In addition, ina National Commission for Public Healthcare was set up in Budapest, which in proposed that, in general, courses of gynaecology and surgery should be removed from the curriculum, because they were not adequate to the requirements of the time.
The movement of intellectual emancipation generated not only corporate actions, but also individual initiatives, including press campaigns and the mobilisation anti aging svájci erdész hentes personal connections with influential circles in Budapest.
In this respect the close contact and ideological affinities between Imre Mikó and József Eötvös appear to have been decisive. Subsequent to proposals emanating from professors of the academy of Legal Studies, presented in the speech of Áron Berde, 38 that the Institute of Medicine and the Academy of Legal Studies be changed into university departments, on 8 FebruaryJózsef Eötvös asked the two institutions for concrete suggestions as to their reorganisation.
Századed. At the same time, negotiations were held with the Transylvanian Museum Association, founded a decade before, to transfer its patrimony to the university for a period of fifty years, especially its impressive library and scientific collections, including the premises where they were held, so as to provide an infrastructure for a high quality institution of advanced learning. The memorandum contained the basic principles to guide the foundation of the new university.
On 11 May Eötvös indeed submitted a set of draft laws to the Parliament in Budapest, regarding the reorganisation of higher education in Hungary. Among them was Law no. They intended to reconcile the political elite in the capital with Transylvanian public opinion. Obviously, this lobby would be worth investigating and analysing in detail, in order to decode the messages and mechanisms that permitted the finalisation of the project of the second Hungarian university.
Before the parliamentary commission including 15 members gave its approval, József Eötvös died and the issue of the second university was postponed for a short time. The draft developed by Pauler contained 12 paragraphs, and differed from the previous one by that the University was organised into faculties. Even before the approval of the Parliament, Franz Josef I ordered the organisation of the University.
They searched for the appropriate building to house the institution, and finally decided on the old seat of the county administration. On this occasion, they publicly announced the availability of teaching positions. In the plenary session of the Hungarian Academy on 27 JuneKároly Szabó presented Apáczai s scheme, highlighting the personality of the author, who through his work militated for a thorough reform of the educational system and for the university as an urgent issue of his time, which cannot be delayed any more.
Shortly afterwards, inthe Croatians also set up an institution of higher education in Zagreb, following the pattern of symbolic self-assertion of new-born east European nation states. It began to operate officially on 19 Octoberalso under the name of Franz Josef, the reference to the Emperor representing the loyalty of Croatians at that time still associated with anti-hungarian independentism to the House of Habsburg.
But the Zagreb institution remained for long incomplete, lacking a Faculty of Medicine. From the organisational point of view, the University had the originality of having four faculties, but not exactly the same as in Budapest: Legal and Political Studies, Medicine including a two-year course anti aging svájci erdész hentes Chemistry, Philosophy Letters and History and Sciences.
Thus, unlike in Budapest and in the traditional German patternTheology was absent and the Philosophy faculty was divided into Humanities and Sciences, following in this respect the Napoleonian system of French faculties. The faculties were endowed, as usual, with internal autonomy, headed by annually elected deans, while the whole University was presided by the rector and managed by the University Council with some independence given the constraints of the state allocated budget.
Both the ordinary and the extraordinary assistant professors earned an annual salary, while the rest of the staff consisting essentially of academically qualified private lecturers Privatdozenten received a stipend depending on the lectures they delivered. Professors were appointed by the King, following the recommendations of the faculty council and the proposals of the Ministry of Cults and Education.