DOI: This study was conducted to determine whether daily high-dose vitamin K1 supplementation safely reduces bone loss, bone turnover, and fractures.
Methods and findings: This single-center study was designed as a 2-y randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, extended for earlier participants for up to an additional 2 y because of interest in long-term safety and fractures.
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A total of postmenopausal women with osteopenia were randomized to either 5 mg of vitamin K1 or placebo daily. Primary outcomes were changes in BMD at the lumbar spine and total hip at 2 y.
Secondary outcomes included changes in BMD at other sites and other time points, bone turnover markers, height, fractures, adverse effects, and health-related quality of life. Over 2 y, BMD decreased by There were no significant number7 anti aging szérum in changes in BMD at any site between the two groups over the 2- to 4-y period.
Daily vitamin K1 supplementation increased serum vitamin K1 levels by fold, and decreased the percentage of undercarboxylated osteocalcin and total osteocalcin levels bone formation marker. However, C-telopeptide levels bone resorption marker were not significantly different between the two groups.
Vitamin K supplements were well-tolerated over the 4-y period.
There were no significant differences in adverse effects or health-related quality of life between the two groups. The study was not powered to examine fractures or cancers, and their numbers were small.
Conclusions: Daily 5 mg of vitamin K1 supplementation for 2 to 4 y does not protect against age-related decline in BMD, but may protect against fractures and cancers in postmenopausal women with osteopenia.
More studies are needed to further examine the effect of vitamin K on fractures and cancers. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials. Publication types.