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HAAI-EFITA Workshop SeptemberBudapest, Hungary We have to calculate the absolute error from példa cv típusú swiss anti aging difference of the measured and estimated concentration value, and the relative error, which give the ratio of the measured and real concentration value Young, Building our statistical based information system has to determine the number of nearest neighbouring points to be considered in the case of certain elements. We discovered that elements can be ranged only into two groups depending on how many nearest neighbouring diagnostic points were considered to kriging.
It is interesting, in case of K, P and Sr the results were the same 10 nearest neighboring points in case of developed statistical method. The Internet-based program We developed a newer internet-based program that makes it possible to reach the objectives through arranging the results of analyses into a database and developing an authorisation system Fig.
When developing the newer software, my objective was to create a dynamic website for users which together with the GPS coordinates only of the certain point could provide the estimated element content for the measured chemical elements also in such points where no samples had been taken and thus measured data were not available.
The relative error and the confidence interval must be provided for each element content value, since they orientate the users into which range the quantity of the certain chemical element at the given diagnostic point can fall.
We provided access to the database through internet-based technology.
With the help of the databasebased server-side script language PHP Meloni, we planned and developed the user interface, through which the user can communicate with the program. Conclusion On a statistical based developed system can be a suitable information system for the management determining the element concentrations in a well-defined precision.
To determine the concentration of the elements, need only the GPS co-ordinates of the place. Data can access by a suitable authority system in this information system. Through the authorization system, the authorization level of each user can easily be determined. In case of database administrator authorization, almost any kind of query can be made in connection with the database through the general query module.
Based on available data, the developed program makes it possible to estimate element content at a certain diagnostic point with some statistical errors; it can also be applied in analyzing effects of environmental pollution.
Using by kriging method in case of the most elements we need 10 nearest neighbouring points have to be considered in order to estimate the element content with the smallest error.
It is interesting, in case of K, P and Sr the results were the same 10 nearest neighbouring points in case of the developed statistical method. PHP form to evaluate the concentrations and reliability of the chosen elements based on the GPS-co-ordinates 5. References Alsamamra, H. Comparative study of ordinary and residual kriging techniques for mapping global solar radiation over southern Spain, Agricultural and Forest meteorology, Bailey, T.
Experimental design and observation for large systems, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series B58 77— Bodrog, Cs. Hidrology and hidrogeology mapplotting — by kriging method.
Geiger J. Korpás, A. General statistics, National Textbook Publisher, Budapest, p. Meloni, J. Panem Kft, Budapest. Oliver, M. Geographical Information Systems, Vol.
Geoderma Vol. Soil data bases for sustainable land use - Hungarian case study. CAB International. Agriculture has undergone significant changes since the industrial revolution. The industrial age and the market economy have moulded agriculture in their image just as much as the characteristics and tools of the information age have recently been transforming its previous operation.
Information and communication technology ICT take-up in agriculture remains low, and the reasons behind this barely changed in the last years. Information technologies are regarded as mediating channels and a vehicle for new services. Information-intensive agriculture is fundamentally determined by information, knowledge and the decision-making farmers, in effect the human factor; therefore, studies aimed at the improvement of the situation of agriculture with ICT tools must be centred on the human element.
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Keywords: ICT-adoption, agriculture, 1. Introduction Information has a central role in our modern way of living and agriculture is no exception: to be successful in farming requires gaining, processing, using and evaluating a huge amount of information policy, markets, new methods etc. Farmers are working in an information-intensive environment and numerous studies have showed that information and communication technologies ICT can play a vital role in realizing benefits with more effective information management in the farm level.
The supply chain in agriculture not only means the flow of products and income but also that of information Niderhauser et al. The toolkit of the information society, information communication technologies ICT offers new opportunities for efficient operation, decision-making and adaptation to the environment Herdon, This, however, can only work successfully if certain conditions are met. The potential opportunities can only be exploited to an optimum under the right circumstances, and it is also important that they are harmonised with példa cv típusú swiss anti aging previously used farm management practice, or else the muchawaited success will suffer.
The purpose of the study is to identify the barriers of widespread adoption of ICT among farmers, mainly analyzing the information flow, information strategies, information literacy and the characteristics of the farm and the farmer.
The author provides an overview of the literature and sets up a theoretical framework of the factors affecting the information strategies and therefore also the use of ICT of the farmers. Information flow and the farm manager Agriculture has undergone significant changes since the industrial revolution: one of the most important ones is market orientation strictly speaking in the developed world we can only find farms producing for the market or at least partly for the marketbut standardised solutions, economies of scale and automation have also become widespread, and this is only partly the result of the flow of the labour force into the cities.
The industrial age and the market economy have moulded agriculture in their image just as much as the characteristics and tools of the information age have been transforming its previous operation.
At the same time, the fundamental cyclical nature of agricultural operation is unchanged. Farming has been placed in a new framework these days: farm managers have had to increasingly devote attention and interact with the external world environmental effects, quality requirements, standards, and documentation — see for example the documentation necessary when applying for EUfunds.
Besides land, labour and capital, sufficient information has become a critical factor for agricultural businesses.
Agricultural management and producers are both dependent on a comprehensive, information-rich environment, since without it they could easily lose their competitive edge. Modelling példa cv típusú swiss anti aging agricultural decision-making process and information flow is nothing new.
The primary objective of studies aimed at creating models is to determine why a given group of farmers behave the way they do Gladwin, With the help of models support and knowledge that contribute to more efficient operation and better decision-making can be provided for farmers.
Information and knowledge are inseparable since the most important input in decisions originates from the stratum of information i. Information flow, or the lack of it, as well as its intensity and knowing about the circumstances of a given farm and its manager might provide a comprehensive picture about the decision-making process and thus the character of ingyenes minta svájci anti aging smink farm.
Sörensen and his associates conducted interviews and based on them drew the following information cloud around the farm manager, a so-called rich picture of factors that influence and shape decisions Figure 1. Figure 1. Most sources agree that combined sources are generally the most effective, or those that fit in with the previous information-acquisition practice of the farmers who typically measure the new sources against the old ones and has little faith in the new means at first.
At the same time, there are some special types of new information that can be employed effectively only through particular channels. Generalised information is often unsuitable, while relevant knowledge is often inaccessible to farmers since it is not converted into a consumable form, or an accessible information system.
There might be asymmetries in the supply chain between the knowledge of the various players, which can even be intentional. The main characteristics of quality information are therefore relevance, accuracy, comprehensiveness and timeliness.
The timing of information is of critical importance especially in the case of daily or other shortterm decisions but less so during strategic, long-term planning. This problem is a complex one, and as such it includes one of the central issues of information management in general: that of information literacy.
Furthermore, he consciously applies and builds the latest information technologies into his everyday work.
For this reason we should have a look at information literacy, which provides an accurate description of the main characteristics of the aforementioned process. The concept of information literacy appeared as a result of the technological development in the s.
Information literacy is not the competence to use certain devices or equipment but the skill to access and use information. The term was closely associated with educational reform mostly that in the United Statesand it was used to mean the efficient use of information already at the outset.
In Burchinal Behrens, ; Bawden, defined information literacy as a set of skills, dividing it into three levels: 1 skills that help to locate and use information; 2 the use of information for problem solving and decision making as it could be seen, previous approaches focused on this level ; 3 efficient and effective példa cv típusú swiss anti aging location and utilisation.
Thus, the development of information literacy not only entails the use of technical tools but also the development of a way of thinking aimed at the consciously planned realisation of interests. Since information literacy means realising lack of information, looking for it, locating and processing it and then using it responsibly, it is evident that its development also includes that of critical thinking.
Applied to agriculture, the truth of this statement was indicated by Öhlmer, who in the early s pointed out that a tool in itself is not capable of performing a miracle and the individual using the tool plays the key role: he claims that no fundamental change takes place in information processes by computerisation since that alone only adds a certain level of comfort to these processes Öhlmer, Information literacy is the skill to access information and use it for value creation, and an individual can be regarded as information literate if he recognises when he needs information.
Information literacy is possessed by those who have learnt how to learn. It can be seen that information literacy requires and demands several skills from the conscious citizens of the digital world Table 1. Never before in human history have these skills been expected of everyone; such expectations typically concerned the members of the intellectual elite.
However, since the world of today is determined by the presence, példa cv típusú swiss anti aging, value and authenticity of information and the speed of its flow, these skills have become important for everybody, including those working in agriculture. Table 1. Information literacy skills Source: Rab, via Eisenberg, M.