We wish all our readers a merry Christmas and a happy New Year! A hatékony ember legfontosabb tulajdonsága az, ha nem hagyja, anti aging titkos formula krabby a körülmények határozzák meg cselekedeteit, hanem felelõsséget vállal Milyen egyszerûnek hangzik! Mindnyájan szeretnénk hatékonyak lenni, ha máshol nem, legalább a szeretteink körében. Azt szeretnénk, ha gyermekeink odafigyelnének ránk, ha megfontolnák életbölcsességeinket, amelyeket az óvás reményében osztunk meg velük.
Azt szeretnénk, ha társunk, vagy fõnökünk, esetleg alkalmazottunk komolyan venné az egyébként jól átgondolt mondanivalónkat. De mindez csak akkor lehetséges, ha nem a körülmények diktálják reakciónkat, hanem magunk vállalunk felelõsséget érte. Amikor elõször ráébredtem arra a tényre, hogy rajtam múlik, hogyan reagálok egy adott helyzetre, akkor úgy éreztem ez a tudat elképesztõen felszabadít.
Viszont annak ellenére, hogy csak húsz éves voltam, nehéz volt újraírni a húsz éve megszokott életsémáimat. Az ember ugyanis észre sem veszi, hogy mennyi apró, elrontott helyzetben keresi a vádlottakat, keresi, hogy kire vagy mire lehet fogni a félresikeredett történteket. Ám az igaz, hogy emberi ez a fajta vádoló viselkedés, de késõbb egy bizonyos Viktor Frankl megrázó példájából azt is megtanultam, hogy még a legszörnyûbb helyzetben is, az indíték és a reakció között képesek vagyunk dönteni.
Az Bécsben született Frankl a neurológia és a pszichiátria területére szakosodott, különösen a depresszió és az öngyilkosság kérdésére fordítva figyelmét õszén feleségével és szüleivel együtt a theresienstadt-i koncentrációs táborba deportálták április én szabadult, de közvetlen rokonai közül csak a nõvére menekült meg, akinek sikerült Ausztráliába emigrálnia még a brenda davis anti aging termekek elõtt.
Frankl a maga és mások szenvedéseinek révén jutott arra a következtetésre, hogy a legabszurdabb, legfájdalmasabb és legembertelenebb helyzetben is van az életnek egy lehetséges értelme, amitõl a szenvedés is értelmet nyer. Tehát egy adott helyzetben nem feltétlenül muszáj egy impulzusra rögtön reagálni, sõt inkább svájci családi címerek anti aging egy nagyot lélegezni, és akármennyire rövid az a lélegzési szünet, abban a szünetben lehet úgy dönteni, hogy pozitívan viszonyul az ember, akár a negatív ösztönzésre is.
Frankl tanítása szerint mindnyájan rendelkezünk azzal a képességgel, hogy elképzeljünk egy olyan jövõt az agyunkban, ami eltér jelen Regardless of whether they are positive or negative, our achievements are determined in the main by decisions which we base on our values and our personal experience.
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The most important characteristic of an effective person is proactivity, that is, taking responsibility for actions, and those actions not being determined by circumstance. Sounds simple enough We d all like to be effective, at least within the circle of our loved ones.
We d like our children to pay attention to what we have to say, to think about the life experience which we share with them in the hope that we will spare them from life s pain. We d like our partner, our boss, maybe our employee to take what we have to say seriously, especially when we have thought it through carefully.
But all of this is only possible if it s not circumstances dictating our reactions, if anti aging titkos formula krabby take responsibility for our reactions ourselves. When I first woke up to the fact that it is up to me how I react in any given situation, I felt frighteningly empowered. And yet, in spite of being only 20, I found it difficult to rewrite 20 years of scripts I had been living.
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A szeretetnek csillagára nézek, Megszáll egy titkos, gyönyörû igézet, Ilyenkor decemberben Bizalmas szívvel járom a világot S amit az élet vágott, Beheggesztem a sebet a szívemben És hiszek újra égi szeretetben, Ilyenkor decemberben És valahol csak kétkedõ beszéd Hallok szomorúan nézek, A kis Jézuska itt van a közelben, Legyünk hát jobbak s higgyünk rendületlen S ne csak így decemberben even notice just how frequently we search for a scapegoat, for whom or what to blame when things go wrong.
It s true this blaming behaviour is certainly human, but later I learnt from Viktor Frankl s soul-stirring example that even in the most terrible situation we have the freedom to decide between stimulus and response.
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Born in Vienna inFrankl specialized in neurology and psychiatry, concentrating on the topics of depression and suicide. In Septemberalong with his wife and his parents, he was deported to the Theresienstadt concentration camp. He was freed by the Americans on 27 Anti aging titkos formula krabbybut among his immediate family, his sister was the only survivor, having escaped by emigrating to Australia just before the deportations. It was due to his and others' suffering in these camps that Frankl came to the conclusion that even in the most absurd, the most painful and most inhumane situation, life still potentially has meaning, through which even suffering becomes meaningful.
So in any given situation we don t have to react to a stimulus immediately - in fact what we should do instead is take a deep breath, and no matter how short or long the gap is, we can decide during that breathing space that we will respond positively, even to a negative stimulus. According to Frankl s teachings we all have the ability to imagine, that is to create a vision in our minds beyond our present reality; we all have a conscience - an inner awareness of right and wrong; furthermore we all have independent will, in other words the ability to act based anti aging titkos formula krabby self-awareness.
This understandably angered the nation so much that the king had to flee to Prague, the capital of his other kingdom, Bohemia. He took with him Hunyadi s second son, Matthias, as a hostage. A few months later king Ladislas died ironically of the same plague that had killed John Hunyadi. The nation, tired of the misrule of foreign kings and foreign courtiers, decided to elect the son of the country s greatest soldier as sovereign.
Matthias I or Mátyás Hunyadi was only eighteen when he returned to Buda to become the country s greatest king. The brilliant and energetic young man began his reign by breaking up the cliques of some magnates opposing his election. He did this by using a judicious mixture of charm, strength and cunning: he simply moved his enemies to higher offices away from the court, the seat of power.
Thus he made his family s archenemy, Újlaki, the king of Bosnia, Hungary s southernmost province. He had more trouble with his friends, especially with his domineering uncle, Mihály Szilágyi, who had been appointed regent during Matthias minority. Matthias made it abundantly clear that he was mature enough to rule alone and disposed of his impetuous uncle by making him Captain-General of the Turk-harassed southern frontier.
Then he dealt with the marauding Hussite Czech raiders in the north, recruiting the useful elements among the defeated raiders into his future mercenary army. From these adventurers he eventually formed the greatest mercenary troop of his era, called the Black Army. He stabilised the nation s finances by imposing upon the entire nation a fair and equitable system of taxation, based on each person s income, and complemented the royal revenue with the yield from the mines and crown-estates.
In addition to these regular revenues, he also imposed special levies when the need arose. He anti aging titkos formula krabby thus able to finance the Black Army and conduct his many campaigns without undue loss of Hungarian blood. The treasury, not the poor, bore the burden of his immense social and cultural expenditure, which raised the nation s economic and cultural standard above that of the rest of contemporary Europe. Matthias understood the importance of urban development. By strengthening the status of the towns he added a powerful third estate, the town burgesses to the other two estates clergy and nobility.
Promotion into this new middle class was made free to any serf who had the will and talent to improve his status. Had peaceful times followed Matthias reign, Hungary would have built the most equitable and progressive social system in Europe.
His legal reforms protected the lower classes, allowing them the right to appeal against the sentences of the baronial courts to the royal courts Tabula, Curiawhich were headed by professional jurists anti aging titkos formula krabby of lower-class birth or by himself. Matthias foreign policy disappointed those who expected him to continue his father s crusades against the Turks.
He realised that the Magyar nation was not strong enough to chase the Turks out of Europe without bleeding to death in the process. He was also realistic enough not to count on the help of the West. So he prepared a long-range plan, aiming ultimately at possession of the crown of the Holy Roman Empire so that he could use the empire s military might to deal with the Turkish menace.
As Hungary had never been a member state of the Empire, he tried to gain the crown of Bohemia, which was one of the member states with the right to vote in the dermatal anti aging krém of the Emperor.
Thus he fought a long war against the king of Bohemia and his allies and also against Emperor Frederick, allying himself first with the one, then with the other. Eventually he managed to obtain the Bohemian crown without the right to vote and then he also conquered Austria from the Emperor without decisively defeating him. He also led short, mainly defensive campaigns against the Turks and managed to build up a defensive belt in the south with the inclusion of such vassal states as Bosnia, Serbia.
Wallachia and others governed by his troublesome friends or placated enemies. He refused, however, to commit his beloved Magyars or expensive mercenaries to adventurous campaigns deep in Turkish territory. Matthias, a son of the Renaissance, was a true and intelligent patron of art and literature. He had the castle of Buda rebuilt in French flamboyant style and gathered his humanist friends to ráncok ellen. His third wife, Beatrice, brought from Italy many artists and scientists who helped Buda to become one of the great centres of humanism.
Matthias library of illuminated codices, the Corvina, was one of the largest in Europe. As part of his cultural program, he founded a university in Pozsony the third Hungarian university. Book printing began in Buda in Matthias apparent passivity in regard to the Turkish question, his obscure western policy and the increasing financial burdens resulting from his policies anti aging fekete nők számára to unrest among the magnates.
Though Matthias managed to deal with these dissensions in his autocratic way, he soon found himself friendless among the barons.
Increasing loneliness cursed his family life, too. His first wife died while they were both still children. His second wife, Catherine, the daughter of the Bohemian king, died in childbirth together with the newborn child, a son.
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Between his marriages he met Barbara Krebs, the daughter of the mayor of Breslau, who bore him a son. Matthias took his illegitimate son to his court, giving him a fine education and the title of a duke John Corvinus. Not having any legitimate children, it anti aging titkos formula krabby his wish to make the intelligent, courageous boy his heir and successor an arrangement not unusual in those times. By Hungary was a powerful state with a population of 4 million the same as England and Matthias, now fifty, was the most influential ruler of Central Europe.
Then, one day, while visiting Hungarian-occupied Vienna, he fell ill and died under somewhat anti aging titkos formula krabby circumstances. The dowager queen and the barons disavowed their previous promises and rejected John Corvinus, who would have made a better king than any of Matthias successors just as his mother would have made a better queen than any of Matthias wives.
Wiadislas Jagello obliged in. He married Beatrice in a sham ceremony, which was later annulled, disbanded the Black Army and promptly lost Austria. Otherwise he obligingly left the government of Hungary to the barons. The magnates, possessed by a madness of self-destruction, swept away the fine state structure of social justice and equal taxation, stripped the country of practically all revenues and defence ability.
Instead they concentrated on endless and barren parliamentary debates anti aging titkos formula krabby the representatives of the lower nobility over decisions which were rarely formulated and never respected.
They then attempted to impose further tax burdens on the lower classes and the burgesses who refused to pay.
Then, in the face of the increasing Turkish menace, in the Primate-Archbishop, Cardinal Bakócz, received the Pope s authority to raise a crusader army. The poor nobles, over-taxed citizens of the towns and the serfs flocked to the army, which was placed under the command of an able officer, the Székely nobleman, György Dózsa. The barons became suspicious, besides they did not want to lose their serfs at the time of the harvest. They tried to restrict the recruiting and to penalize those who had already signed up.
Soon clashes began and the crusaders who called themselves kuruc, a distortion of the Latin crux : cross turned against the barons and prelates. Soon a full-scale civil war broke out in the south between the barons of this region and the kuruc.
The Primate hastily withdrew the crusaders commission but Dózsa still considered himself the king s commander and continued fighting the magnates who obstructed the army s movements with their own private troops. Battles of increasing vehemence were followed by retaliations of increasing cruelty on both sides. A few weeks later, the inexperienced kuruc army was crushed by the regular army of the governor of Transylvania, John Zápolya.
The victor who was destined to become one of the most fateful figures of Hungarian history punished the captured leaders with the savage cruelty usual in the rest of Europe in those times, but which the humane Hungarians found monstrous.
Subsequently the revengeful Diet for once unified inflicted various restrictions upon the serfs, whom they held responsible for the uprising which, however, had been led by noblemen, burgesses and lower clergy. The worst of these measures was the abolition of the serfs right to change their domicile.
They were not condemned to eternal servitude, as some historians have mistranslated the words perpetua rusticitas eternal farm work to mean. The true meaning is that of their exclusion from anti aging titkos formula krabby occupations, especially higher ecclesiastical careers. This was a censure of Cardinal Bakócz, who was the son of a serf as were many high dignitaries in Hungary. We also have to remember that at that time no European serf had a free choice of landlords; and they were all restricted to farm work, having much less chance than their Hungarian counterparts to gain higher offices.
All these vengeful articles of law did was to deprive the Hungarian serfs of certain privileges they and they alone had enjoyed before the uprising.
Ploughman of Rákos under the Turks - Károly Kisfaludy My father with great sadness used to say, life here was better in a far-off day, I feel it in my heart, and heave a sigh, as here in Rákos fields my plough I ply. Where now is Mátyás, the all-righteous king? You saw him, happy Rákos, in your spring! Perhaps he rode here once upon a time, where I plough nowadays in dust and grime.
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- Mi okozza a szem ödémát
Here, so they tell us, noble lords would come and would confer in projects venturesome; and if the trumpet summoned them to fight, they flew to battle with an eagle's flight. They all have vanished, Rákos. You remain. How many men you nourish on your plain! Ah, but I hardly see a Magyar now, and with a heavy heart I plough and plough. The people come from Buda by the score; they scarcely know our language any more; one of these days, a Magyar word, I know, will come as seldom as a snow-white crow.
From yonder eminence a cool wind springs; a dark fog sits upon its murmuring wings; perhaps the dust, anti aging titkos formula krabby these meadows spread, comes from the ashes of the noble dead. O dark-haired maiden from the village square, drink not the waves of Rákos unaware! Above Hungarian bones its waters flow; a salty taste Hungarian tears bestow.
O Rákos, in what sorry state do you from glorious fame lie desolate! My heart aches at the sights my vision yields; and weeping deep, I plough my country's fields. It was the scene of numerous battles during the Turkish occupation of Hungary. The work defines the free nation i. The nobles elect the King and invest him with sovereign powers through the coronation.
Legislation is exercised in the Parliament Diet by the King and the nobles. The less theoretical and more unfortunate part of the Tripartitum summed up the privileges of the nobility. Apart from repeating the legal safeguards already codified in the Golden Bull ofthe compendium emphasises that the nobleman does not pay taxes and has no obligation to render military service, except in a defensive war.
The right to resist unconstitutional royal acts was also reaffirmed. The flexible interpretation of defensive military service and the exemption from taxes were soon to bring catastrophic results to the nation, which was by then facing the greatest trial of its existence: the onslaught of the Ottoman Turkish Empire.